Church split for two reasons that have theological spin but not theological roots. We say that church split over instruments or over women’s roles. That is what brought tension to the system but the system wasn’t robust enough to handle the tension.
What is the root?
The first root, that I have been discussing relentlessly is that churches split over immature emotional systems. People don’t know how to handle anxiety. They don’t know how to handle it because they gave their anxiety to leaders and the leaders took it to “fix” the problems to relieve anxiety for people. That resulted in churches that had emotionally immature people in them with no tolerance for change. Theological issues pressure the system and bring these things to the surface.
The second root is just as important and that is how we read the Bible.
Is it a rule book? A guide? A love story? Is it normative? Authoritative? Do we read it looking to speak with authority on every issue? What about context and historical backgrounds?
What you go to the Bible to find will influence what you find. How we read the Bible is at the heart of our disagreement on any given theological issue. Combine that with emotional systems that are not robust and the ability to tolerate these theological discussions without blowing a gasket is minimal.
These are our root issues. Until we have more robust emotional systems and leadership and better ways to read the Bible we will continue to suffer the problem of division.